Nutrient and Carbon removal
Carbon removal has been the core aim of most post-use water treatment. The unrestricted release of organic material overwhelms the natural environment. Regulations therefore limit the BOD and COD that can be discharged from municipal and industrial post-use treatment plants. The nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus have also been targeted because of their impact.
The activated sludge process is now more than 100 years old. It has evolved and been refined, and other processes have been developed. Dutch researchers and technology companies have been at the forefront of these efforts to progress post-use water treatment. The array of options available is now wider than ever, bringing greater efficiency, better operation, and providing ways to target different issues. New aerobic and anaerobic treatment processes are being used increasingly around the world, with progress on issues such as the need to remove ammonia during post-use treatment.